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TUNNELLING IN FAULT ZONES – STATE OF THE ART (2006)
Alpine fault zones are complex structures, exhibiting highly heterogeneous rock mass conditions. In addition the permeability can vary in a wide range. High displacements, stability problems, and ground water inflows are common phenomena observed during tunnelling through fault zones.
Besides the choice of an appropriate construction method for such conditions, the safety and long-term stability of the underground structure are major issues.
The paper addresses investigation methods and targets to obtain the key parameters determining the rock mass behaviour, as well as rock mass characterization methods, criteria for the selection of appropriate construction methods, depending on the expected conditions.
Even with the most advanced investigation and design methods uncertainties with respect to geological structure, rock mass parameters, and hydrological conditions remain. A continuous updating of the ground model thus is essential for safe and economical tunnelling. Advanced methods of short-term prediction and investigation ahead of the face during construction are presented.
State of the art excavation and support methods are shown and future developments discussed.
Safety in Underground Space; Proc. ITA-AITES 2006 World Tunnel Congress and 32nd ITA General Assembly, 22-27 April 2006, Seoul, Korea
Graz University ofTechnology, Austria