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FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING OF TUNNELS IN SWELLING ROCK (2005)

This paper describes the development and implementation of a two-dimensional, plane strain finite element model to calculate both the stress and time dependent ground and lining interaction using a numerical stepwise
integration of the tunnel construction process and its effects. The work extends previously developed closed-form visco-elastic solutions that were
limited to the installation of a cast-in-place lining (Lo and Yuen, 1981 and
Lo and Hefny, 1996). The use of the finite element method and numerical integration has allowed the modelling of multiple construction events such as  excavation, lining installation, annulus grouting and time dependent  deformations. In this manner, the solutions more closely model the stress  
path or stress history of the ground mass during the construction process.

Reference:
K. Y. Lo Symposium, The University of Western Ontario, July 7-8, 2005
Organization:
Hatch Mott MacDonald Ltd., San Jose, California
USA, California
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