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ASSESSMENT OF ROCKFALL HAZARD ON THE STEEP-HIGH SLOPES: ERMENEK (KARAMAN, TURKEY) (2016)
Ermenek is one of the curious settlement areas because of its topographical features in Karaman (Turkey). The city is located in northern side of the very steep cliffs formed by jointed limestone which are suddenly increased from 1250m to 1850 m. Moreover, these cliffs having almost 90° slope dip are the main rockfall source areas due to their lithological characteristics, climatic effects and engineering properties of rock units. Up to now, depending on rockfall events, almost 500 residences were damaged severely, and losses of lives were also recorded in Ermenek. The rockfall phonemon are initiated by discontinuities, lithological changes, weathering and freeze-thaw process in the study area. In this study, extensive fieldwork including determination of location and dimension of hanging, detached and already fallen blocks, a detailed discontinuity survey, description of geological, morphological and topographical characteristics was performed. Besides, rockfall hazard is evaluated by two-dimensional rockfall analyses along 10 profiles. During the rockfall analyses; run out distance, bounce height, kinetic energy and velocity of various size of blocks for each profiles are determined by using RocFall v4.0 software. The results obtained from rockfall analyses were used to map the areas possible rockfall hazard zones and rockfall source areas were interpreted.
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/nhess-2015-337, 2016 Manuscript under review for journal Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Published: 19 January 2016
Mersin University, Department of Geological Engineering, Mersin, Turkey