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EXPERIENCES OF GROUND IMPROVEMENT FOR URBAN TUNNELS IN DIFFICULT CONDITIONS (2006)
A brief overview of jet grouting in Brazil is followed by “why and when” basics in relation to ground improvement for safe tunnel excavating. A number of case histories are reported - mostly NATM tunnels involving what were seen as difficult, new, or unusual situations. Our report is based on our own ground improvement experience - over a million meters for 56 tunnels and 26 years of specialized geotechnical work in Brazil, Portugal, Madeira, and Venezuela.
Proceedings of International Seminar on Underground Works, Lisbon, Portugal: 1–13
Novatecna Consolidações e Construções S/A
São Paulo, Brazil