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TYPICAL SOIL NAILING PRACTICES IN THE UNITED STATES
Soil Nailing has been used in the United States (US) as a support of excavation technique for over 30-years. As a means to assess the current state of soil nail wall practice in the US, we have identified five significant soil nail wall projects. These projects were recently completed in the eastern US and have a combined area of approximately 17,900 square meters of finished shotcrete surface. They required the use of innovative design and construction methods in order to address various challenges, including slide-prone back slope materials, perched water, highly erodible rock materials, curved wall alignments, very tight construction tolerances and unexpected subsurface conditions. Special focus is given to issues that developed during construction, such as bench excavation, soil nail installation methods, shotcrete mix design, anticipated shotcrete quantities, and shotcrete nozzlemen qualifications in order to provide an overview of typical soil nailing practices in the United States.